This case is a very good example why manual penetration tests are valuable – the team achieved compromise without administrator access to the application, not using any known exploits or discovering injection/deserialization/other RCE flaws.
The penetration testing team was tasked with segmentation testing for a sample of the customer's private subnet (both CDE, DMZ, and management subnets). The project required onsite testing, which was not possible with the time constraints of the project (approx. 2 days) and quarantine measures in the Customer's country.
The team created and mailed the customer mobile connect-back jumphosts that was later used to establish initial access, conduct network reconnaissance, and discover network and service-level vulnerabilities that may break segmentation.
The Attack Lifecycle
Several mobile jumphosts was created that connected back to our infrastructure over VPN. These were installed in every sampled subnet in scope.
After network access was established, traffic inspection and various types of network scanning were conducted to collect information about the networking setup.
Broadcast network traffic was analyzed, and exploitable endpoint and router configurations were identified that could allow for MitM attacks (e.g. NBNS poisoning, DHCPv6 poisoning, or abusing dynamic routing protocols).
Network filter evasion
A tunnel from segmented portions of the network was built to the Internet utilizing various techniques to highlight segmentation errors.
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About security testing:
The adversary simulation activity helped the client identify and remediate multiple issues with the on-premise infrastructure and vulnerabilities, calculate potential risks, and improve the overall security posture. Each finding also included proposed solutions for applying industry-standard defences.
During this social engineering engagement, it was possible to achieve persistent internal access, exfiltrate confidential and personal information, and compromise the internal segmented infrastructure.